Reinsurance contracts: IFRS 4 “Insurance Contracts” represents the outcome of Phase I of the IASB project “Insurance Contracts” and serves as a transitional arrangement until the IASB defines the measurement of insurance contracts after completion of Phase II. IFRS 4 sets out basic principles for the accounting of insurance contracts. Underwriting business is to be subdivided into insurance and investment contracts. Contracts with a significant insurance risk are considered to be insurance contracts, while contracts without significant insurance risk are to be classified as investment contracts. The standard is also applicable to reinsurance contracts. IFRS 4 contains fundamental rules governing specific circumstances, such as the separation of embedded derivatives and unbundling of deposit components, but it does not set out any more extensive provisions relating to the measurement of insurance and reinsurance contracts. In conformity with the basic rules of IFRS 4 and the IFRS Framework, reinsurance-specific transactions therefore continue to be recognised in accordance with the pertinent provisions of US GAAP (United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) as applicable on the date of initial application of IFRS 4 on 1 January 2005.
Financial assets: as a basic principle we recognise the purchase and sale of directly held financial assets including derivative financial instruments as at the settlement date. The recognition of fixed-income securities includes apportionable accrued interest.
Financial assets held to maturity are comprised of non-derivative assets that entail fixed or determinable payments on a defined due date and are acquired with the intent and ability to be held until maturity. They are measured at amortised cost. The corresponding premiums or discounts are recognised in profit or loss across the duration of the instruments using the effective interest rate method. A write-down is taken in the event of permanent impairment. Please refer to our comments on impairments in this section.
Loans and receivablesare non-derivative financial instruments that include fixed or determinable payments on a defined due date, are not listed on an active market and are not sold at short notice. They are carried at amortised cost.
Premiums or discounts are deducted or added within the statement of income using the effective interest rate method until the amount repayable becomes due. Impairment is taken only to the extent that repayment of a loan is unlikely or no longer expected in the full amount. Please refer to our comments on impairments in this section.
|Financial instrument||Parameter||Pricing model|
|Unlisted plain vanilla bonds, interest rate swaps||Interest rate curve||Present value method|
|Unlisted structured bonds||Interest rate curve, volatility surfaces||Hull-White, Black-Karasinski, LIBOR market model etc.|
|Unlisted ABS / MBS, CDO / CLO||Risk premiums, default rates, prepayment speed and recovery rates||Present value method|
|Other invested assets|
|Unlisted equities and equity investments||Acquisition cost, cash flows, EBIT multiples, as applicable book value||Capitalised earnings method, discounted cash flow method, multiple-based approaches|
|Private equity funds, private equity real estate funds||Audited net asset values (NAV)||Net asset value method|
|Unlisted bond, equity and real estate funds||Audited net asset values (NAV)||Net asset value method|
|Other financial assets – at fair value through profit or loss|
|Currency forwards||Interest rate curves, spot and forward rates||Interest parity model|
|OTC stock options, OTC stock index options||Listing of the underlying share, implicit volatilities, money-market interest rate, dividend yield||Black-Scholes|
|Insurance derivatives||Fair values, actuarial parameters, interest rate curve||Present value method|
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss consist of securities held for trading and those classified as measured at fair value through profit or loss since acquisition. This refers principally to unsecured debt instruments issued by corporate issuers and derivative financial instruments. Within the scope of the fair value option provided under IAS 39 “Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement”, according to which financial assets may be carried at fair value on first-time recognition subject to certain conditions, all structured securities that would have needed to have been broken down had they been recognised as available for sale or under loans and receivables are also recognised here. Hannover Re makes use of the fair value option solely for selected subportfolios of its financial assets. Securities held for trading and securities classified as measured at fair value through profit or loss since acquisition are carried at their fair value on the balance sheet date. If stock market prices are not available for use as fair values, the carrying amounts are determined using generally acknowledged measurement methods. All changes in fair values from this measurement are recognised in investment income. The classification of financial assets at fair value through profit or loss is compatible with Hannover Re’s risk management strategy and investment strategy, which are oriented extensively towards economic fair value variables.
Financial assets classified as available for sale are carried at fair value; accrued interest is recognised in this context. We allocate to this category those financial instruments that do not satisfy the criteria for classification as held to maturity, loans and receivables, at fair value through profit or loss, or trading. Unrealised gains and losses arising out of changes in the fair value of securities held as available for sale are recognised – with the exception of currency valuation differences on monetary items – directly in shareholder’s equity after deduction of deferred taxes.
Establishment of the fair value of financial instruments carried as assets or liabilities: we establish the fair value of financial instruments carried as assets or liabilities using the methods and models described below. The fair value of a financial instrument corresponds to the amount that Hannover Re would receive or pay if it were to sell or settle the said financial instrument on the balance sheet date. Insofar as market prices are listed on markets for financial assets, their bid price is used; financial liabilities are valued at ask price. In other cases the fair values are established on the basis of the market conditions prevailing on the balance sheet date for financial assets with similar credit rating, duration and return characteristics or using recognised models of mathematical finance. Hannover Re uses a number of different valuation models for this purpose. The details are set out in the table above. Financial assets for which no publicly available prices or observable market data can be used as inputs (financial instruments belonging to fair value hierarchy level 3) are for the most part measured on the basis of proven valuations drawn up by knowledgeable, independent experts, e. g. audited net asset value, the plausibility of which has previously been subjected to systematic review. For further information please see our explanatory remarks on the fair value hierarchy in section 6.1 “Investments under own management”.
Impairments: As at each balance sheet date we review our financial assets with an eye to the need to take impairments. Permanent impairments on all invested assets are recognised directly in the statement of income. In this context we take as a basis the same indicators as those subsequently discussed for fixed-income securities and securities with the character of equity. Qualitative case-by-case analysis is also carried out. IAS 39 “Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement” contains a list of objective, substantial indications for impairments of financial assets. In the case of fixed-income securities and loans reference is made, in particular, to the rating of the instrument, the rating of the issuer / borrower as well as the individual market assessment in order to establish whether they are impaired. With respect to held-to-maturity instruments as well as loans and receivables recognised at amortised cost, the level of impairment is arrived at from the difference between the book value of the asset and the present value of the expected future earnings flows. The book value is reduced directly by this amount which is then recognised as an expense. With the exception of value adjustments taken on accounts receivable, we recognise impairments directly on the assets side – without using an adjustment account – separately from the relevant items. If the reasons for the write-down no longer apply, a write-up is made in income up to at most the original amortised cost for fixed-income securities.
With respect to impairments on securities with the character of equity, IAS 39 “Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement” states, in addition to the aforementioned principles, that a significant or prolonged decrease in fair value below acquisition cost constitutes objective evidence of impairment. Hannover Re considers equity securities to be impaired under IAS 39 if their fair value falls significantly, i. e. by at least 20%, or for a prolonged period, i. e. at least nine months, below acquisition cost. In accordance with IAS 39 the reversal of impairment losses on equities to the statement of income once impairment has been taken is prohibited, as is adjustment of the cost basis. Impairment is tested in each reporting period using the criteria defined by Hannover Re. If an equity security is considered to be impaired on the basis of these criteria, IAS 39 requires that a value adjustment be recognised in the amount of the fair value less historical cost and less prior value adjustments, meaning that depreciation is taken on the fair value as at the closing date – if available, on the publicly quoted stock exchange price. We also apply this method to participations in funds that invest in private equity. In order to reflect the specific character of these funds (in this case initially negative yield and liquidity flows from the so-called “J curve” effect during the investment period of the funds), we take an impairment to net asset value as an approximation of the fair value for the first time after a two-year waiting period if there is a significant or prolonged decrease in value.
Netting of financial instruments: financial assets and liabilities are only netted and recognised in the appropriate net amount if a corresponding legal claim (reciprocity, similarity and maturity) exists or is expressly agreed by contract, in other words if the intention exists to offset such items on a net basis or to effect this offsetting simultaneously.
Other invested assets are for the most part recognised at nominal value. Insofar as such financial assets are not listed on public markets (e. g. participating interests in private equity firms), they are carried at the latest available net asset value as an approximation of the fair value. Loans included in this item are recognised at amortised cost.
Investments in associated companies are valued at equity on the basis of the proportionate shareholders’ equity attributable to the Group. Further information is provided in section 4.1 “Consolidation principles”.
Real estate used by third parties (investment property) is valued at cost less scheduled depreciation and impairment. Straight-line depreciation is taken over the expected useful life – at most 50 years. Under the impairment test the market value of real estate for third-party use (recoverable amount) is determined using acknowledged valuation methods and compared with the book value; arising impairments are recognised. Maintenance costs and repairs are expensed. Value-enhancing expenditures are capitalised if they extend the useful life.
Cash and cash equivalents are carried at face value. Cash collateral that we have received for the hedging of positive fair values of derivatives is shown under other liabilities.
Funds withheld are receivables due to reinsurers from their clients in the amount of the cash deposits contractually withheld by such clients; they are recognised at acquisition cost (nominal amount). Appropriate allowance is made for credit risks.Contract deposits: under this item we report receivables and liabilities under insurance contracts that satisfy the test of a significant risk transfer to the reinsurer as required by IFRS 4 “Insurance Contracts” but fail to meet the risk transfer required by US GAAP. IFRS 4 in conjunction with SFAS 113 requires insurance contracts that transfer a significant technical risk from the ceding company to the reinsurer to be differentiated from those under which the risk transfer is of merely subordinate importance. Since the risk transfer under the affected transactions is of subordinate importance, these contracts are recognised using the “deposit accounting” method and hence eliminated from the technical account. The compensation for risk assumption booked to income under these contracts is netted under other income and expenses. The payment flows resulting from these contracts are shown in the cash flow statement under operating activities.
Accounts receivable: the accounts receivable under reinsurance business and the other receivables are carried at nominal value; value adjustments are made where necessary on the basis of a case-by-case analysis. We use adjustment accounts for value adjustments taken on reinsurance accounts receivable, while all other write-downs are booked directly against the underlying position.
Deferred acquisition costs principally consist of commissions and other variable costs directly connected with the acquisition or renewal of existing reinsurance contracts. These acquisition costs are capitalised and amortised over the expected period of the underlying reinsurance contracts. Deferred acquisition costs are regularly tested for impairment.
Reinsurance recoverables on technical reserves: shares of our retrocessionaires in the technical reserves are calculated according to the contractual conditions on the basis of the gross technical reserves. Appropriate allowance is made for credit risks.
Intangible assets: in accordance with IFRS 3 “Business Combinations” goodwill is not amortised; instead, impairments may be taken after an annual impairment test or as indicated. For the purposes of the impairment test, goodwill is to be allocated pursuant to IAS 36 “Impairment of Assets” to so-called “cash generating units” (CGUs). Each CGU to which goodwill is allocated should represent the lowest level on which goodwill is monitored for internal management purposes and may not be larger than a segment. Following allocation of the goodwill it is necessary to determine for each CGU the recoverable amount, defined as the higher of the value in use and the fair value less costs to sell. For impaired goodwill the recoverable amount is to be stated. The recoverable amount is to be compared with the book value of the CGU including goodwill. When the latter exceeds the recoverable amount, an impairment expense is to be recognised. For detailed information on the impairment method used and the goodwill recognised as at the balance sheet date, please see section 6.5 “Goodwill”.
The other intangible assets largely consist of purchased and self-developed software. This is recognised at acquisition cost less scheduled depreciation. Intangible assets are regularly tested for impairment and impairment is taken where necessary. The other intangible assets also include the expected profits from acquired life reinsurance portfolios. These are carried at the present value of future profits (PVFP) at time of acquisition, which is calculated as the present value of profits expected from the acquired blocks of business disregarding new business and tax effects. Scheduled amortisation is taken according to the periods of the underlying acquired contracts. The PVFP is regularly tested for impairment using a liability adequacy test and impairments are taken if necessary. In this regard please see section .3 “Major discretionary decisions and estimates”.
Deferred tax assets: IAS 12 “Income Taxes” requires that assets-side deferred taxes be established if assets have to be recognised in a lower amount or liabilities in a higher amount in the consolidated balance sheet than in the tax balance sheet and if these temporary differences will lead to reduced tax burdens in the future. In principle, temporary differences result from the valuation differences between the tax balance sheets drawn up in accordance with national standards and the IFRS balance sheets of the companies included in the consolidated financial statement drawn up in accordance with uniform group standards as well as from consolidation processes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are not established if they arise out of assets or liabilities, the book value of which upon first-time recognition diverges from their initial tax base.
Deferred tax assets are also recognised on tax loss carry-forwards and tax credits. Insofar as the deferred taxes refer to items carried directly in equity, the resulting deferred taxes are also recognised directly in equity. Value adjustments are taken on deferred tax assets as soon as realisation of the receivable no longer appears likely. Deferred taxes are measured according to the tax regulations specific to the country concerned that are applicable or have been adopted as at the closing date.
Deferred tax assets may only be netted with deferred tax liabilities if an enforceable right exists to net actual tax refund claims with actual taxes owing. A precondition here is that the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities refer to income taxes that are levied by the same revenue authority either for (i) the same taxable entity or for (ii) different taxable entities. In this regard, there must be an intention – in every future period in which the discharge or realisation of substantial amounts of deferred tax liabilities / deferred tax assets is to be expected – either to bring about the settlement of the actual taxes owing and refund claims on a net basis or to discharge the liabilities at the same time as the claims are realised.
Own-use real estate: The portfolio of own-use real estate is measured at cost less scheduled straight-line depreciation over a useful life of no more than 50 years. The fair values are determined for comparative purposes using the discounted cash flow method.
Other assets are accounted for at amortised cost.
Technical reserves: the technical reserves are shown for gross account in the balance sheet, i. e. before deduction of the share attributable to our reinsurers; cf. here the remarks concerning the corresponding assets. The reinsurers’ portion is calculated and accounted for on the basis of the individual reinsurance contracts.
Loss and loss adjustment expense reserves are constituted for payment obligations from reinsurance losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled. They are subdivided into reserves for reinsurance losses reported by the balance sheet date and reserves for reinsurance losses that have already been incurred but not yet reported (IBNR) by the balance sheet date. The loss and loss adjustment expense reserves are based on estimates that may diverge from the actual amounts payable. In reinsurance business a considerable period of time may elapse between the occurrence of an insured loss, notification by the insurer and pro-rata payment of the loss by the reinsurer. For this reason the realistically estimated future settlement amount based on long-standing established practice is carried. Recognised actuarial methods are used for estimation purposes. In this regard we make allowance for past experience, currently known facts and circumstances, the expertise of the market units as well as other assumptions relating to the future development, in particular economic, social and technical influencing factors. Subsequently, based on Group-wide analyses, we give separate consideration in this context to the inherent volatility of the reserves constituted for the reinsurance business, e. g. due to large losses. The interest rate-induced portion of the change in the reserve is shown in the statement of income on a consistent Group basis.
Benefit reserves are comprised of the underwriting reserves for guaranteed claims of ceding companies in life and health reinsurance. Benefit reserves are determined using actuarial methods on the basis of the present value of future payments to cedants less the present value of premium still payable by cedants. The calculation includes assumptions relating to mortality, disability, lapse rates and the future interest rate development. The actuarial bases used in this context allow an adequate safety margin for the risks of change, error and random fluctuation. They correspond to those used in the premium calculation and are adjusted if the original safety margins no longer appear to be sufficient.
Provisions for pensions are established in accordance with IAS 19 “Employee Benefits” using the projected unit credit method. They are calculated according to actuarial principles and are based upon the commitments made by the Hannover Re Group for retirement, disability and widows’ benefits. The amount of the commitments is determined according to length of service and salary level. The pension plans are defined benefit plans. The basis of the valuation is the estimated future increase in the rate of compensation of the pension beneficiaries. The benefit entitlements are discounted by applying the capital market rate for highest-rated securities. All changes in valuation, especially actuarial gains and losses, are captured immediately in cumulative other comprehensive income. Service cost and interest cost are recognised in the statement of income. Returns on plan assets are determined using the same interest rate as that used in the calculation of the present value of the defined benefit obligation.
Contributions to defined contribution plans are expensed when the beneficiary of the commitment has performed the work that entitles them to such contributions.
Deferred tax liabilities: in accordance with IAS 12 “Income Taxes” deferred tax liabilities must be recognised if assets are to be recognised in a higher amount or liabilities in a lower amount in the consolidated balance sheet than in the tax balance sheet and if these temporary differences will lead to additional tax loads in the future; please see our explanatory remarks on deferred tax assets.
Under the balance sheet item Other liabilities we recognise not only the sundry non-technical provisions but also minority interests in partnerships. Direct minority interests in partnerships, i. e. liabilities to holders of minority shares in partnerships arising out of long-term capital commitments, which are puttable at fair value by the holder of the interest, are recognised as debt pursuant to IAS 32 and measured at the fair value of the redemption amount as at the balance sheet date.
Sundry non-technical provisions are established according to a realistic estimate of the amount required and shown under the balance sheet item “Other liabilities”. Allocation to such provisions is conditional upon the Group currently having a legal or actual obligation that results from a past event and in respect of which utilisation is probable and the amount can be reliably estimated.
Restructuring provisions are recognised if a detailed formal plan for restructuring measures exists and steps to implement it have already begun or if key details of the restructuring have been published. The provisions cover only expenditures arising directly as a consequence of restructuring that are not connected with the company’s regular activities.
Partial retirement obligations are carried at present value according to actuarial principles. During the phase when the employee is still working a provision is set aside to cover the liability amounting to the working hours not yet compensated. Top-up payments are accumulated in instalments until the end of the work phase. In periods when the employee is remunerated according to the partial retirement arrangements without performing any work, the provision is released.
Share-based payment: The share-based payment models existing within the Hannover Re Group are remuneration plans with cash settlement. In accordance with the requirements of IFRS 2 “Share-based Payment”, the services rendered by the eligible beneficiaries and the resulting liability are to be recognised at the fair value of the liability and expensed over the vesting period. Until settlement of the liability the fair value of the liability is remeasured at each closing date and at the settlement date. All changes in fair value are recognised in profit or loss for the period.
Debt and subordinated capital principally consists of subordinated liabilities that can only be satisfied after the claims of other creditors in the event of liquidation or bankruptcy. They are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. Both components of profit or loss arising out of the amortisation of transaction costs and premiums / discounts in connection with an issue and the nominal interest are shown as interest on hybrid capital.
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss: Hannover Re does not make use of the fair value option provided by IAS 39 “Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement” to classify financial liabilities in this category upon firsttime recognition.
Shareholders’ equity: the items “common shares” and “additional paid-in capital” are comprised of the amounts paid in by the shareholders of Hannover Rück SE on its shares. In addition to the statutory reserves of Hannover Rück SE and the allocations from net income, the retained earnings consist of reinvested profits generated by the Hannover Re Group companies in previous periods. What is more, in the event of a retrospective change of accounting policies, the adjustment for previous periods is recognised in the opening balance sheet value of the retained earnings and comparable items of the earliest reported period. Unrealised gains and losses from the fair value measurement of financial instruments held as available for sale are carried in cumulative other comprehensive income under unrealised gains and losses on investments. Translation differences resulting from the currency translation of separate financial statements of foreign subsidiaries are recognised under gains and losses from currency translation.
Non-controlling interests are shares in the equity of affiliated companies not held by companies belonging to the Group. IAS 1 “Presentation of Financial Statements” requires that non-controlling interests be recognised separately within Group shareholders’ equity. The non-controlling interest in profit or loss is shown separately following the net income. Further information is provided in section 6.14 “Non-controlling interests”.
Disclosures about financial instruments: IFRS 7 “Financial Instruments: Disclosures” requires more extensive disclosures according to classes of financial instruments. In this context, the term “class” refers to the classification of financial instruments according to their risk characteristics. A minimum distinction is required here between measurement at amortised cost or at fair value. A more extensive or divergent distinction should, however, be geared to the purpose of the corresponding disclosures in the notes. In contrast, the term “category” is used within the meaning of the measurement categories defined in IAS 39 “Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement” (held to maturity, loans and receivables, available for sale and financial assets at fair value through profit or loss with the subcategories of trading and designated financial instruments). Essentially, the following classes of financial instruments are established:
This grouping into classes is not, however, solely determinative for the type and structure of each disclosure in the notes. Rather, guided by the underlying business model of reinsurance, the disclosures are made on the basis of the facts and circumstances existing in the financial year and in light of the principle of materiality.
Currency translation: financial statements of Group subsidi aries were drawn up in the currencies corresponding to the economic environment in which each subsidiary primarily operates. These currencies are referred to as functional currencies. The euro is the reporting currency in which the consolidated financial statement is prepared.
Transactions in foreign currencies reported in Group companies’ individual financial statements are converted into the functional currency at the transaction rate. In accordance with IAS 21 “The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates” the recognition of exchange differences on translation is guided by the nature of the underlying balance sheet item. Exchange differences from the translation of monetary assets and liabilities are recognised directly in the statement of income. Currency translation differences from the translation of non-monetary assets measured at fair value via the statement of income are recognised with the latter as profit or loss from fair value measurement changes. Exchange differences from non-monetary items – such as equity securities – classified as available for sale are initially recognised outside income in a separate item of shareholders’ equity and only booked to income when such non-monetary items are settled.
The individual companies’ statements of income prepared in the local currencies are converted into euro at the average rates of exchange and transferred to the consolidated financial statement. The conversion of foreign currency items in the balance sheets of the individual companies and the transfer of these items to the consolidated financial statement are effected at the mean rates of exchange on the balance sheet date. In accordance with IAS 21 “The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates” differences from the currency translation of financial statements of foreign Group companies must be recognised in the consolidated financial statement as a separate item in shareholders’ equity.
Effective 1 January 2016 the functional currency of the Group entity Hannover Re (Ireland) Designated Activity Company, Dublin, changed from the euro to the US dollar. This change was prompted by the regrouping of large parts of the securities portfolio held by the company into US dollar-denominated instruments. Taken together with the fact that major portions of the insurance business written by the company are transacted in US dollars, the currency of the primary economic environment in which the Group entity operates is now the US dollar.
Currency translation differences resulting from long-term loans or lendings without specified maturity between Group companies are similarly recognised outside the statement of income in a separate item of shareholders’ equity.
|Key exchange rates|
|1 EUR corresponds to:||Mean rate of exchange|
on the balance sheet date
|Average rate of exchange|
Earned premium and unearned premium: assumed reinsurance premiums, commissions and claim settlements as well as assumed portions of the technical reserves are recognised according to the terms and conditions of the reinsurance treaties, giving due consideration to the underlying contracts for which reinsurance was taken out.
Ceded reinsurance premiums are deducted from the gross written premium for the purpose of reconciliation to net premium earned. Assets and liabilities in connection with reinsurance ceded are recognised on a gross basis. The reinsured portions of the reserves are estimated on a basis consistent with the reserves attributable to the reinsured risk. Income and expenses in connection with reinsurance treaties are recognised on a basis consistent with the underlying risk of the reinsured business
Premiums for reinsurance treaties are booked to income as earned across the period of the contracts in proportion to the insurance protection already provided or when they become due. Unearned premiums are calculated individually for each treaty in order to establish the portion of the premium volume that is not booked to income. This applies principally to property and casualty reinsurance and parts of accident and health reinsurance. Premiums already collected that are attributable to future risk periods are deferred pro rata temporis and recognised in conformity with the pertinent standards of US GAAP. In this context, assumptions are to be made if the data required for a calculation pro rata temporis is not available. The unearned premium corresponds to the insurance protection afforded in future periods.
Taxes: the taxes are comprised of the actual tax load on corporate profits of the Group companies, to which the applicable local tax rates are applied, as well as changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities. Income and expenses arising out of interest or penalties payable to the revenue authorities are shown under other income and expenses. The calculation of the deferred tax assets and liabilities is based on tax loss carry-forwards, unused tax credits and temporary differences between the book values of assets and liabilities in the consolidated balance sheet of the Hannover Re Group and their tax values. Further information on deferred taxes is provided in our remarks on deferred tax assets and liabilities.
Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations: in accordance with IFRS 5 “Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations”, non-current assets and disposal groups are classified as held for sale if the relevant book value is realised largely through sale rather than through continued use. Components of an entity that can be clearly distinguished from the rest of the entity for operational and accounting purposes and were classified as sold or for sale are recognised as discontinued operations. Measurement is at the lower of book value and fair value less costs to sell. Scheduled depreciation is not taken on non-current assets classified as held for sale. Impairment losses on fair value less costs to sell are recognised in profit or loss; a gain for any subsequent increase in fair value less costs to sell leads to the realisation of profit up to the amount of the cumulative impairment. If the impairment loss to be taken on a disposal group exceeds the book value of the corresponding non-current assets, the need to establish a provision within the meaning of IAS 37 “Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets” is reviewed.